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Yukawa multipole electrostatics and nontrivial coupling between electrostatic and dispersion interactions in electrolytes

Författare och institution:
Roland Kjellander (Institutionen för kemi); Rosa Ramirez (-)
Publicerad i:
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter, 20 s. 494209 =16pp
Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig
Sammanfattning (abstract):
An exact treatment of screened electrostatics in electrolyte solutions is presented. In electrolytes the anisotropy of the exponentially decaying electrostatic potential from a molecule extends to the far field region. The full directional dependence of the electrostatic potential from a charged or uncharged molecule remains in the longest range tail (i.e. from all multipole moments). In particular, the range of the potential from an ion and that from an electroneutral polar particle is generally exactly the same. This is in contrast to the case in vacuum or pure polar liquids, where the potential from a single charge is longer ranged than that from a dipole, which is, itself, longer ranged than the one from a quadrupole etc. The orientational dependence of the exponentially screened electrostatic interaction between two molecules in electrolytes is therefore rather complex even at long distances. These facts are formalized in Yukawa multipole expansions of the electrostatic potential and the pair interaction free energy based on the Yukawa function family exp(−κr)/rm, where r is the distance, κ is a decay parameter and m is a positive integer. The expansion is formally exact for electrolytes with molecular solvent and in the primitive model, provided the non-Coulombic interactions between the particles are sufficiently short ranged. The results can also be applied in the Poisson–Boltzmann approximation. Differences and similarities to the ordinary multipole expansion of electrostatics are pointed out. On the other hand, when the non-Coulombic interactions between the constituent particles of the electrolyte solution contain a dispersion 1/r6 potential, the electrostatic potential from a molecule decays like a power law for long distances rather than as a Yukawa function. This is due to nontrivial coupling between the electrostatic and dispersion interactions. There remains an exponentially decaying component in the electrostatic potential, but it becomes oscillatory in the presence of the dispersion interactions. For weak dispersion forces and low electrolyte concentrations, the wavelength is, however, long compared to the decay length of the exponential decay. In other cases the qualitative behaviour may be substantially different from the conventional picture. The Green function for the electrostatic potential (the 'screened Coulomb potential') in simple electrolytes ultimately decays like const/r6 for large r, where the constant prefactor depends on the ratio between the strength of the dispersion forces and the square of the average ionic charge, (q++|q−|)/2.
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
Postens nummer:
Posten skapad:
2008-12-12 14:30
Posten ändrad:
2009-01-14 15:39

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