Are manual workers at higher risk of death than non-manual employees when living in Swedish municipalities with higher income inequality?
Författare och institution:
Göran Henriksson (Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa); Peter Allebeck (-); G. R. Weitoft (-); Dag Thelle (Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för akut och kardiovaskulär medicin)
Eur J Public Health, 17 ( 2 ) s. 139-44
Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig
OBJECTIVES: To test the hypothesis that manual workers are at higher risk of death than are non-manual employees when living in municipalities with higher income inequality. DESIGN: Hierarchical regression was used for the analysis were individuals were nested within municipalities according to the 1990 Swedish census. The outcome was all-cause mortality 1992-1998. The income measure at the individual level was disposable family income weighted against composition of family; the income inequality measure used at the municipality level was the Gini coefficient. PARTICIPANTS: The study population consisted of 1 578 186 people aged 40-64 years in the 1990 Swedish census, who were being reported as unskilled or skilled manual workers, lower-, intermediate-, or high-level non-manual employees. RESULTS: There was no significant association between income inequality at the municipality level and risk of death, but an expected gradient with unskilled manual workers having the highest risk and high-level non-manual employees having the lowest. However, in the interaction models the relative risk (RR) of death for high-level non-manual employees was decreasing with increasing income inequality (RR = 0.77; 95% CI, 0.63-0.93), whereas the corresponding risk for unskilled manual workers increased with increasing income inequality (RR = 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46). The RRs for skilled manual, low- and medium- level non-manual employees were not significant. Controlling for income at the individual level did not substantially alter these findings, neither did potential confounders at the municipality level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that there could be a differential impact from income inequality on risk of death, dependent on individuals' social position.
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP ->
Folkhälsovetenskap, global hälsa, socialmedicin och epidemiologi ->
Adult, Censuses, Employment/classification/*economics/statistics & numerical data, Female, Humans, Income/classification/statistics & numerical data, Male, Middle Aged, Occupational Diseases/*mortality, Occupations/classification/*economics/statistics & numerical data, Poisson Distribution, *Poverty Areas, Residence Characteristics/classification, Risk Factors, Social Class, Sweden/epidemiology, Urban Health/*statistics & numerical data, Vulnerable Populations/*statistics & numerical data, Workload/statistics & numerical data
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