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Distributive Justice, Reciprocity and Global Economic Cooperation: A Reciprocity-based Evaluation of International Economic Institutions

Författare och institution:
Nina van Heeswijk (Institutionen för filosofi, lingvistik och vetenskapsteori)
Publicerad i:
The Ethics of Economic Institutions, Jan. 8-10 2015, Utrecht University,
Konferensbidrag, övrigt
Sammanfattning (abstract):
Global economic institutions like the WTO, the IMF, and the World Bank are tilted against developing countries in both the design and the implementation of rules to regulate global trade. Irrespective of the precise effects of these biased trade rules on global poverty and inequality, in being designed to be more to the benefit of individuals in developed countries than to individuals in developing countries, they predictably increase global inequalities rather than reduce them. This raises questions of distributive justice. Does justice require the elimination of discriminating trade rules that predictably increase global inequalities? Nowadays most people think it is unjust if some groups within a single country have significantly worse life prospects than others through no fault of their own. When it comes to the global level, however, views are more diverging. While some think that justice demands the mitigation of inequalities globally, others insist that considerations of egalitarian distributive justice do not apply beyond state borders. There are two ways in which people have tried to ground these claims concerning the scope of distributive justice, distinguished by the underlying conception of justice (Sangiovanni 2011). On a non-relational conception, the demand for distributive justice applies to persons as such, independent of any social relations. On a relational conception, on the contrary, the demand for distributive justice does not apply to persons as such, but only to those who stand in a particular kind of social relation. The paradigm case is that of the relationship among fellow citizens of a nation-state. Different views on which element in social relations generates considerations of justice have been put forward. Among the most prominent are accounts grounding distributive considerations in the relation between those subjected to an involuntarily imposed system of rules (Blake 2002; Nagel 2005), and accounts focussing on reciprocal relations in the provision of certain basic goods (Sangiovanni 2007). In this paper I will explore the implications of adopting a reciprocity-based relational account for an evaluation of the justice of global economic institutions. I will argue that on a reciprocity-based account global distributive principles that are comparative - yet not egalitarian – apply, on which we can assess current global trade practices as unjust. The justificatory model that is implicit in reciprocity-based accounts will be revealed by reconstructing the argument in terms of requirements to fairly distribute the products of a cooperative enterprise. This reconstruction will at the same time give us a better understanding of what is involved in the reciprocity-based claim that egalitarian distributive justice solely applies between co-nationals and pave the way for extending the domestic argument to global economic cooperation regulated by global economic institutions. If my argument is successful, one of the most promising routes to deny that current trade rules are unjust proves to fail. Bibliography Blake, Michael, ‘Distributive Justice, State Coercion, and Autonomy’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 30, no. 3 (2002), pp. 257-96 Nagel, Thomas, ‘The problem of Global Justice’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 33, no. 2 (2005), pp. 113-47 Sangiovanni, Andrea, ‘Global Justice and the Moral Arbitrariness of Birth’, The Monist, vol. 94, no. 4 (2011), pp. 571-583 Sangiovanni, Andrea, ‘Global Justice, Reciprocity, and the State’, Philosophy and Public Affairs, vol. 35, no. 1 (2007), pp. 4-39 Wertheimer, Alan, Exploitation, Princeton: Princeton University Press (1999)
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
Filosofi, etik och religion ->
Filosofi ->
Praktisk filosofi
Filosofi, etik och religion ->
Global Justice, International Economic Institutions, Reciprocity
Postens nummer:
Posten skapad:
2016-06-02 16:48

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