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Extracorporeal ("ex vivo") connection of pig kidneys to humans. I. Clinical data and studies of platelet destruction.

Författare och institution:
Michael Breimer (Institutionen för de kirurgiska disciplinerna, Avdelningen för kirurgi); S Björck (-); Christian T. Svalander (-); Anders Bengtsson (Institutionen för de kirurgiska disciplinerna, Avdelningen för anestesiologi och intensivvård); Lennart Rydberg (Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, Avdelningen för klinisk kemi/transfusionsmedicin); K Lie-Karlsen (-); P O Attman (-); M Aurell (-); B E Samuelsson (-)
Publicerad i:
Xenotransplantation, 3 ( 4 ) s. 328-39
Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig
Sammanfattning (abstract):
The pioneering experiment by Welsh et al. (Immunological Lett 1991:29:167-170) connecting a pig kidney to the human circulation has been repeated in a modified manner. Two volunteer dialysis patients were pretreated by daily plasmapheresis on days -2,-1, and 0 to remove the naturally occurring anti-pig xenoantibodies. The anti-pig lymphocytotoxic liters were reduced from 1:8 to 1:2 in patient 1 and from 1:8 to 1:1 in patient 2. No steroids or immunosuppressive drugs were administrated before or during the experiments. A sterile pig kidney was extracorporeally ("ex vivo") connected to the patients a/v fistula using an arterial and a venous pump similar to a dialysis. The two experiments gave different results. In the first experiment the perfusion pressure was kept at 100 mmHg for the initial 25 min by reducing the pump speed until the minimum blood flow of 30 ml/min was reached. Thereafter, the pressure rose continuously and the experiment was terminated at 65 min at a perfusion pressure of 200 mmHg. The patient did not feel any discomfort during the perfusion. In the second experiment, a stable blood flow of 200 ml/min was reached at a pressure of 100 mmHg after a few minutes. The perfusion was terminated at 15 min when the patient developed chest and abdominal pain, hypotension, and electrocardiographic signs of myocardial ischemia. The patient recovered quickly. In the first experiment, small volumes of clear urine was produced until the pressure rose above 100 mmHg, which resulted in hematuria. In the second experiment clear urine (4 ml/min) was produced. (51)Chromium clearance values were after 15 min <1 ml/min for kidney 1 and 12 ml/min (8 ml/min/100 g) for kidney 2. A drastic reduction in platelet count (128 to 48 and 64 to 8 × 10(9)/1, respectively) during the passage through the kidney was found in blood samples collected simultaneously before and after the organ. No change in hemoglobin values and leucocyte counts were found. Light- and electron-microscopical analysis of the kidney tissues revealed for kidney 1 focal areas with obliteration of the glomerular and peritubular capillaries by platelets and PMN cells and severe damage of the endothelial cells comparable to a picture of a hyperacute rejection. In kidney 2, all vessels were patent but in the capillaries large amount of membrane fragments were detected by electron microscopy and a discrete damage of the endothelial cells were seen in some segments. No intact platelets were present in the vascular tree. These human experiments support the hypothesis that hyperacute rejection of pig to human xenografts is delayed in time by removal of the preformed anti-pig xenoantibodies. A new finding was a very rapid destruction of platelets occurring in the kidney of patient 2 who had very low liters of xenoantibodies. The humoral immune response is described in detail in an accompanying paper (Rydberg et al., this issue).
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
Klinisk medicin ->
Kirurgi ->
Postens nummer:
Posten skapad:
2015-01-29 17:01
Posten ändrad:
2016-09-01 11:29

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