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Validation and comparison of three formulae to estimate sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning fasting urine compared to 24-h measures in 11 countries

Författare och institution:
A. Mente (-); M. J. O'Donnell (-); G. Dagenais (-); A. Wielgosz (-); S. A. Lear (-); M. J. McQueen (-); Y. Jiang (-); W. Xingyu (-); B. Jian (-); K. B. Calik (-); A. A. Akalin (-); P. Mony (-); A. Devanath (-); A. H. Yusufali (-); P. Lopez-Jaramillo (-); A., Jr. Avezum (-); K. Yusoff (-); Annika Rosengren (Institutionen för medicin, avdelningen för molekylär och klinisk medicin); L. Kruger (-); A. Orlandini (-); S. Rangarajan (-); K. Teo (-); S. Yusuf (-)
Publicerad i:
Journal of Hypertension, 32 ( 5 ) s. 1005-15
Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig
Sammanfattning (abstract):
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although 24-h urinary measure to estimate sodium and potassium excretion is the gold standard, it is not practical for large studies. We compared estimates of 24-h sodium and potassium excretion from a single morning fasting urine (MFU) using three different formulae in healthy individuals. METHODS: We studied 1083 individuals aged 35-70 years from the general population in 11 countries. A 24-h urine and MFU specimen were obtained from each individual. A subset of 448 individuals repeated the measures after 30-90 days. The Kawasaki, Tanaka, and INTERSALT formulae were used to estimate urinary excretion from a MFU specimen. RESULTS: The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between estimated and measured sodium excretion was higher with Kawasaki (0.71; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.65-0.76) compared with INTERSALT (0.49; 95% CI: 0.29-0.62) and Tanaka (0.54; 95% CI: 0.42-0.62) formulae (P <0.001). For potassium, the ICC was higher with the Kawasaki (0.55; 95% CI: 0.31-0.69) than the Tanaka (0.36; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.60; P <0.05) formula (no INTERSALT formula exists for potassium). The degree of bias (vs. the 24-h urine) for sodium was smaller with Kawasaki (+313 mg/day; 95% CI: +182 to +444) compared with INTERSALT (-872 mg/day; 95% CI: -728 to -1016) and Tanaka (-548 mg/day; 95% CI: -408 to -688) formulae (P <0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively). Similarly for potassium, the Kawasaki formula provided the best agreement and least bias. Blood pressure correlated most closely and similarly with the 24-h and Kawasaki estimates for sodium compared with the other two formulae. CONCLUSION: In a diverse population, the Kawasaki formula is the most valid and least biased method of estimating 24-h sodium excretion from a single MFU and is suitable for population studies.
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
Klinisk medicin
Postens nummer:
Posten skapad:
2014-12-05 14:11
Posten ändrad:
2015-03-26 09:13

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