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Functional and structural MRI studies on impulsiveness: Attention Deficit/Hyperactive Disorder and Borderline Personality Disorders

Författare och institution:
Trevor Archer (Psykologiska institutionen); P Bright (-)
Publicerad i:
Neuroimaging – Cognitive and Clinical Neuroscience/ Edited by Peter Bright, s. 205-228
Kapitel, refereegranskat
Sammanfattning (abstract):
Impulsive behavior is characterized a tendency to initiate behavior without sufficient/adequate consideration of consequences. It typically refers to ill-conceived, premature or inappropriate behavior that may be self-destructive or harmful to other individuals. Pathological impulsiveness is associated with impaired performance on neuropsychological tests of attention and executive function and with neuroimaging evidence for structural and/or functional correlates, particular in frontal lobe regions. Impulsive behavior is a major component of several neuropsychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, ADHD, substance abuse, bipolar disorder, and borderline and antisocial personality disorders. The notion of impulsiveness incorporates a multidimensional construct consisting of a range of inter-related factors including novelty-seeking and reckless behavior, lack of planning ability and self-control whereby mechanistic relations evolve from its role in initiating action. The construct incorporates motor impulsiveness, inability to tolerate delays, lack of planning and an incapacity for self-control. Impulsiveness, with or without aggressiveness, has been associated with a range of personality disorders and other psychopathologies, with impulse control difficulties often of primary diagnostic importance. the notions of aberrant reward learning, dysregulated response inhibition and pathological hypersensitivity to temporal delays in reinforcement form the essential behavioural endophenotype of impulsiveness that is witnessed in ADHD and BPD, as well as in compulsive gambling, addictive disorders and dopamine dysregulation syndrome. Developmental trajectories of impulsive behaviors and the damaging effects of early-life trauma on brain development bear essential outcome-expectancies for eventual understanding of etiopathogenesis. Structural and functional resonance imaging has served to provide a point of convergence for the resolution of neurobehavioural, epigenetic and neurodevelopmental factors.
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
Neuroimaging – MRI – ADHD – BPD – planning – self-control – sensation-seeking – neurodevelopmental
Postens nummer:
Posten skapad:
2013-01-30 13:26
Posten ändrad:
2013-08-19 15:40

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