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Subtidal dynamics in a deep fjord of southern Chile

Författare och institution:
M. I. Castillo (-); O. Pizarro (-); U. Cifuentes (-); N. Ramirez (-); Leif Djurfeldt (Institutionen för geovetenskaper)
Publicerad i:
Continental Shelf Research, 49 s. 73-89
Artikel, refereegranskad vetenskaplig
Sammanfattning (abstract):
This study presents results from an unprecedented program of measurements performed in Reloncavi Fjord (RF), Chile. This fiord is located around 41 degrees 35'S, 72 degrees 30'W, making it one of the most equatorward fiords in the world. The main objectives of this study were to describe and quantify the mean circulation inside the Fjord and to evaluate its along- and cross-fjord subtidal momentum balance. The depth of the fjord is about 450 m near the mouth and lacks a well defined sill. There, the mean flow showed a three layered structure. Surface (< 5 m depth) and deep (> 100 m depth) outflow layers delimited an inward-flowing layer. The along-fiord wind stress (tau(y)) shifted markedly during the beginning of the austral spring (September 2008). In winter, the mean tau(y) was predominantly out-fjord, similar to the mean along-fiord currents (nu) observed in the upper layer. In contrast, the spring tau(y), was mainly toward the fjord head, i.e., opposite to the surface current. During periods of large up-Fjord winds (tau(y) > 0.04 N m s(-2)) surface currents were reversed. Near the surface (depths <5 m), nu and tau(y) were well correlated in spring. The horizontal baroclinic pressure gradient force was typically of order 10(-5) m s(-2) at the surface, both along- and cross-Fjord. The estimated magnitudes of the other terms in the along-fjord momentum equation indicated that advective terms were the most relevant But near Puelo, where the fiord abruptly bends and the main river flow enters the fiord, both the advective and frictional forces were relevant, particularly in February 2009. In the cross-fjord component of the momentum equation, the Coriolis term < f nu > was the most relevant in winter. At Puelo the advective term < u(partial derivative u/partial derivative x)> was the most important in summer. The importance of the Coriolis force in the cross-fjord momentum balance suggested that v may approximately be in geostrophic balance. The correlation between the mean along-fjord geostrophic velocities and the mean observed currents had an R-2 > 0.79 for all measurements and reached R-2 similar to 0.85 in winter. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ämne (baseras på Högskoleverkets indelning av forskningsämnen):
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap ->
Geovetenskap och miljövetenskap ->
Oceanografi, hydrologi, vattenresurser ->
Subtidal variability, Chilean fjords, Geostrophic balance, Low-frequency currents, coastal-plain estuary, transverse variability, flow, wind, reloncavi, exchange, svalbard, channel, salmon, waves
Postens nummer:
Posten skapad:
2013-01-18 11:07

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